Both of these snippets are showing completed action.
- The plank of wood has been fashioned—there's nobody sitting by the side of the road working on it!
- Alanna is puzzled—she's not gradually becoming puzzled.
On the last page, we saw that we create continuous action by using the -ing form of a verb. What happens if we try that here?
A plank of wood lay by the side of the track, roughly fashioning in the shape of an arrow.
Uh-oh! We lose the passive voice, and now it sounds like the plank of wood is fashioning something (and the whole sentence sounds weird because there's nothing filling that complement role).
We need to use a tense helper, so that we can keep the passive -ed verb form:
- A plank of wood lay by the side of the track, being roughly fashioned in the shape of an arrow.
This interaction between timing and voice in clauses like these is pretty obscure and uncommon. For the most part, you just need to remember:
- -ing verbs for active voice/ongoing action.
- -ed verbs for passive voice/completed action.