Curriculum for Point of view

There's more to point of view than grammatical first/second/third person. In this lesson we consider three types of people involved in any story—audience, narrator, and characters—and we show how point of view defines the relationship between these three entities, especially with regard to who knows what. We use a variety of text snippets to explore a range of points of view: third person limited objective, subjective, alternating, omniscient, second person, and first person. And we go beyond pronoun selection to explore the narrative opportunities and limitations of each approach. The lesson contains 10 writing exercises and takes approximately 2-4 hours to complete. It will suit older middle years audiences and up, however there is so much room for discussion that teacher support is highly recommended.

Australia

Australian National Curriculum F-10

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects

Understand how ideas can be expanded and sharpened through careful choice of verbs, elaborated tenses and a range of adverb groups/phrases

Investigate how vocabulary choices, including evaluative language can express shades of meaning, feeling and opinion

Recognise that vocabulary choices contribute to the specificity, abstraction and style of texts

Investigate how evaluation can be expressed directly and indirectly using devices, for example allusion, evocative vocabulary and metaphor

Understand that authors innovate with text structures and language for specific purposes and effects

Explain how authors creatively use the structures of sentences and clauses for particular effects

ACELA1569

Year 10

Analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of a wide range of sentence and clause structures as authors design and craft texts

ACELA1570

Year 10

Analyse how higher order concepts are developed in complex texts through language features including nominalisation, clause combinations, technicality and abstraction

Identify and explain characteristic text structures and language features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text

Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive print and multimodal texts, choosing text structures, language features, images and sound appropriate to purpose and audience

Re-read and edit student’s own and others’ work using agreed criteria for text structures and language features

Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images and digital resources appropriate to purpose and audience

Re-read and edit students’ own and others’ work using agreed criteria and explaining editing choices

Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, selecting aspects of subject matter and particular language, visual, and audio features to convey information and ideas

Create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that raise issues, report events and advance opinions, using deliberate language and textual choices, and including digital elements as appropriate

Explore and explain the combinations of language and visual choices that authors make to present information, opinions and perspectives in different texts

Create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that present a point of view and advance or illustrate arguments, including texts that integrate visual, print and/or audio features

Review and edit students’ own and others’ texts to improve clarity and control over content, organisation, paragraphing, sentence structure, vocabulary and audio/visual features

ACELY1750

Year 10

Identify and explore the purposes and effects of different text structures and language features of spoken texts, and use this knowledge to create purposeful texts that inform, persuade and engage

ACELY1756

Year 10

Create sustained texts, including texts that combine specific digital or media content, for imaginative, informative, or persuasive purposes that reflect upon challenging and complex issues

ACELY1757

Year 10

Review, edit and refine students’ own and others’ texts for control of content, organisation, sentence structure, vocabulary, and/or visual features to achieve particular purposes and effects

Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers

Experiment with text structures and language features to refine and clarify ideas to improve the effectiveness of students’ own texts

Create literary texts using realistic and fantasy settings and characters that draw on the worlds represented in texts students have experienced

Identify and explain how choices in language, for example modality, emphasis, repetition and metaphor, influence personal response to different texts

Identify, describe, and discuss similarities and differences between texts, including those by the same author or illustrator, and evaluate characteristics that define an author’s individual style

Create literary texts that adapt or combine aspects of texts students have experienced in innovative ways

Compare the ways that language and images are used to create character, and to influence emotions and opinions in different types of texts

Recognise and analyse the ways that characterisation, events and settings are combined in narratives, and discuss the purposes and appeal of different approaches

Create literary texts that adapt stylistic features encountered in other texts, for example, narrative viewpoint, structure of stanzas, contrast and juxtaposition

Identify and evaluate devices that create tone, for example humour, wordplay, innuendo and parody in poetry, humorous prose, drama or visual texts

Create literary texts that draw upon text structures and language features of other texts for particular purposes and effects

Investigate and experiment with the use and effect of extended metaphor, metonymy, allegory, icons, myths and symbolism in texts, for example poetry, short films, graphic novels, and plays on similar themes

Experiment with the ways that language features, image and sound can be adapted in literary texts, for example the effects of stereotypical characters and settings, the playfulness of humour and pun and the use of hyperlink

ACELT1641

Year 10

Analyse and explain how text structures, language features and visual features of texts and the context in which texts are experienced may influence audience response

ACELT1642

Year 10

Identify, explain and discuss how narrative viewpoint, structure, characterisation and devices including analogy and satire shape different interpretations and responses to a text

ACELT1643

Year 10

Compare and evaluate how ‘voice’ as a literary device can be used in a range of different types of texts such as poetry to evoke particular emotional responses

Interpret and analyse language choices, including sentence patterns, dialogue, imagery and other language features, in short stories, literary essays and plays

Experiment with particular language features drawn from different types of texts, including combinations of language and visual choices to create new texts

Create literary texts, including hybrid texts, that innovate on aspects of other texts, for example by using parody, allusion and appropriation

Create literary texts that experiment with structures, ideas and stylistic features of selected authors

Experiment with text structures and language features and their effects in creating literary texts, for example, using imagery, sentence variation, metaphor and word choice

Experiment with text structures and language features and their effects in creating literary texts, for example, using rhythm, sound effects, monologue, layout, navigation and colour

ACELT1814

Year 10

Create literary texts that reflect an emerging sense of personal style and evaluate the effectiveness of these texts

ACELT1815

Year 10

Create literary texts with a sustained ‘voice’, selecting and adapting appropriate text structures, literary devices, language, auditory and visual structures and features for a specific purpose and intended audience

Australian National Curriculum Senior Secondary

ACEEN001

Year 11 Year 12

Investigate the relationships between language, context and meaning by explaining how texts are created in and for different contexts

ACEEN002

Year 11 Year 12

Investigate the relationships between language, context and meaning by analysing how language choices are made for different purposes and in different contexts using appropriate metalanguage; for example, personification, voice-over, flashback, salience

ACEEN004

Year 11 Year 12

Examine similarities and differences between imaginative, persuasive and interpretive texts including explaining the ways language features, text structures and conventions communicate ideas and points of view

ACEEN005

Year 11 Year 12

Examine similarities and differences between imaginative, persuasive and interpretive texts including explaining the ways text structures, language features and stylistic choices are used in different types of texts

ACEEN006

Year 11 Year 12

Examine similarities and differences between imaginative, persuasive and interpretive texts including analysing how vocabulary, idiom and rhetoric are used for different purposes and contexts

ACEEN007

Year 11 Year 12

Examine similarities and differences between imaginative, persuasive and interpretive texts including evaluating the impact of description and imagery, including figurative language, and still and moving images in digital and multimodal texts.

ACEEN010

Year 11 Year 12

Analyse and evaluate how responses to texts, including students’ own responses, are influenced by the use of imaginative, persuasive and interpretive techniques.

ACEEN017

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using accurate spelling, punctuation, syntax and metalanguage.

ACEEN022

Year 11 Year 12

Compare texts in a variety of contexts, mediums and modes by analysing the style and structure of texts including digital texts

ACEEN024

Year 11 Year 12

Investigate the representation of ideas, attitudes and voices in texts including analysing the ways language features, text structures and stylistic choices shape points of view and influence audiences

ACEEN027

Year 11 Year 12

Investigate the representation of ideas, attitudes and voices in texts including analysing how attitude and mood are created, for example, through the use of humour in satire and parody.

ACEEN030

Year 11 Year 12

Analyse and evaluate how and why responses to texts vary through the interplay between imaginative, persuasive and interpretive techniques, for example, how anecdotes are used in speeches to amuse, inform or influence, or the use of characteristation in advertising

ACEEN032

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using imaginative, interpretive and persuasive elements for different purposes, contexts and audiences

ACEEN033

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts experimenting with text structures, language features and multimodal devices

ACEEN034

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts developing and sustaining voice, tone and style

ACEEN037

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using accurate spelling, punctuation, syntax and metalanguage

ACEEN041

Year 11 Year 12

Compare texts from similar or different genres and contexts by analysing language, structural and stylistic choices

ACEEN042

Year 11 Year 12

Compare texts from similar or different genres and contexts by explaining how each text conforms to or challenges the conventions of particular genres or modes such as crime fiction, advertising or short films

ACEEN044

Year 11 Year 12

Compare and contrast distinctive features of genres by analysing the techniques and conventions used in different genres, mediums and modes

ACEEN045

Year 11 Year 12

Compare and contrast distinctive features of genres by considering how the conventions of genres can be challenged, manipulated or parodied

ACEEN047

Year 11 Year 12

Analyse and evaluate how the conventions of texts influence responses including the ways language patterns can create shades of meaning

ACEEN050

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts transforming and adapting texts for different purposes, contexts and audiences

ACEEN051

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts making innovative and imaginative use of language features

ACEEN052

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using and experimenting with text structures and language features related to specific genres for particular effects

ACEEN056

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using accurate spelling, punctuation, syntax and metalanguage.

ACEEN057

Year 11 Year 12

Reflect on their own and others’ texts by analysing and evaluating how different texts represent similar ideas in different ways

ACEEN058

Year 11 Year 12

Reflect on their own and others’ texts by explaining how meaning changes when texts are transformed into a different genre or medium

ACEEN059

Year 11 Year 12

Reflect on their own and others’ texts by comparing and evaluating the impact of language conventions used in a variety of texts and genres

ACEEN064

Year 11 Year 12

Evaluate different perspectives, attitudes and values represented in texts by analysing the use of voice and point of view such as in feature articles, reporting of current events or narration

ACEEN066

Year 11 Year 12

Evaluate how texts convey perspectives through the selection of mode, medium, genre and type of text

ACEEN068

Year 11 Year 12

Evaluate how texts convey perspectives through the selection of language features that generate empathy or controversy, for example, juxtaposition of image and text

ACEEN069

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using appropriate language and stylistic features to sustain a personal voice and point of view

ACEEN070

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using nuanced language

ACEEN075

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using accurate spelling, punctuation, syntax and metalanguage

ACEEA120

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using some written and oral text forms and grammatical structures, including the linear sequencing of events through the use of simple sentences, conjunctions, punctuation and paragraphs

ACEEA121

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using simple first-person recounts and descriptions

ACEEA143

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using simple written and oral text forms, punctuation and grammatical structures including graphic representations of information

ACEEA144

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using descriptions of people, places and events

ACEEA171

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using appropriate form, content and style for a range of common purposes and audiences

ACEEA172

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using first-person and third-person narration

ACEEA177

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using description, imagery and an awareness of characterisation

ACEEA178

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using cohesive devices at paragraph level, including anaphoric and cataphoric reference, referential pronouns and common conjunctions

ACEEA200

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using imaginative and descriptive language and growing control over direct and indirect speech

ACEEA201

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using a range of common cohesive devices at sentence, paragraph and whole-text level such as referencing, lexical chains and conjunctions

ACEEA202

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using simple, compound and some complex sentences

ACEEA007

Year 11 Year 12

Comprehension skills and strategies including describing linguistic and structural features of a range of more complex text types including literary and transactional texts

ACEEA021

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using appropriate structure and content to communicate ideas and opinions for different purposes and audiences

ACEEA023

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using common language features, for example, subject specific vocabulary, synonyms and antonyms, adjectives and adverbs used to create modality, some nominalisation, common collocations and idioms

ACEEA024

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using description, characterisation, and direct and indirect speech

ACEEA049

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using different types of texts to present ideas and opinions for different purposes and audiences in a range of digital, multimodal and print-based technologies

ACEEA050

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using subject-specific vocabulary, nominalisation, and nouns and verbs used to create modality, collocations, idioms and figurative language

ACEEA051

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using a range of cohesive and structural devices

ACEEA052

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using persuasive, descriptive and emotive language as appropriate

ACEEA053

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using experimentation with different registers and tones

ACEEA075

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using a range of genres and digital, multimodal and print-based technologies

ACEEA076

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using language that influences the audience or that privileges certain ideas or perspectives over others

ACEEA077

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using different sentence structures and forms suited to purpose, audience and subject

ACEEA078

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using modality (including modality in a hypothetical past, nominalised language and discourse markers)

ACEEA098

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using a range of types of texts and digital, multimodal and print-based technologies

ACEEA099

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using language appropriate to the context, including imaginative, persuasive and rhetorical forms and features

ACEEA100

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using stylistic and grammatical choices for effect, including complex lexical elements, modality in the past conditional and subject-specific language forms and features

ACEEE039

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts using personal voice and adopting different points of view to influence audiences in a range of mediums and digital technologies

ACEEE040

Year 11 Year 12

Create a range of texts selecting text structures, language features, and visual techniques to communicate and represent ideas and information for different contexts and purposes; for example, writing diary entries of real or imagined people, creating interactive websites, participating in workplace role plays and scripting fictional dialogues

ACELR015

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts developing connections between real and imagined experiences

ACELR016

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts drawing on knowledge and understanding of storytelling, style and the structure of texts

ACELR017

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts experimenting with aspects of style and form to achieve deliberate effects

ACELR018

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts reflecting on familiar and emerging literary forms for particular audiences and purposes

ACELR033

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts integrating real and imagined experiences by selecting and adapting particular aspects of texts to create new texts

ACELR034

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts using analysis of literary texts to inform imaginative response

ACELR035

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts transforming texts studied in one medium or genre to another for different audiences and purposes

ACELR036

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts reflecting on the significance and effects of variations to texts

ACELR049

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts experimenting with content, form, style, language and medium

ACELR050

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts drawing on knowledge and experience of genre, literary devices and the interplay of the visual and verbal in creating new texts

ACELR051

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts adapting literary conventions for specific audiences, challenging conventions and reinterpreting ideas and perspectives

ACELR052

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts reflecting on the different ways in which form, personal style, language and content engage and position the audience

ACELR066

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts adapting medium, form, style, point of view and language

ACELR067

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts experimenting with elements of style and voice to achieve specific effects

ACELR068

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts manipulating literary conventions for different audiences and contexts

ACELR069

Year 11 Year 12

Create imaginative texts reflecting on the ways in which expectations and values of audiences shape the created text

United States

Common Core

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.

Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Describe how a particular story's or drama's plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).

Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.

Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

United Kingdom

UK National Curriculum

Apply appropriate methods of language analysis, using associated terminology and coherent written expression.

Demonstrate critical understanding of concepts and issues relevant to language use.

Analyse and evaluate how contextual factors and language features are associated with the construction of meaning.

Demonstrate expertise and creativity in the use of English to communicate in different ways.

Apply concepts and methods from integrated linguistic and literary study as appropriate, using associated terminology and coherent written expression.

Analyse ways in which meanings are shaped in texts.

Demonstrate understanding of the significance and influence of the contexts in which texts are produced and received.

Demonstrate expertise and creativity in the use of English to communicate in different ways.

Studying the effectiveness and impact of the grammatical features of texts. Drawing on new vocabulary and grammatical constructions from reading, and using these consciously in writing and speech to achieve particular effects.

Studying effectiveness and impact in texts. Drawing on new vocabulary and grammatical constructions and using these consciously in writing and speech to achieve particular effects. Analysing some of the differences between spoken and written language, including differences associated with formal and informal registers, and between Standard English and other varieties of English. Using linguistic and literary terminology accurately and confidently in discussing reading, writing and spoken language.

Key Stage 3 (KS3) – Reading

Year 7 Year 8 Year 9

Knowing the purpose, audience for and context of the writing and drawing on this knowledge to support comprehension. Knowing how language, including figurative language, vocabulary choice, grammar, text structure and organisational features, presents meaning. Recognising a range of poetic conventions and understanding how these have been used. Studying setting, plot, and characterisation, and the effects of these. Making critical comparisons across texts.

Drawing on knowledge of the purpose, audience for and context of the writing, including its social, historical and cultural context and the literary tradition to which it belongs, to inform evaluation. Identifying and interpreting themes, ideas and information. Exploring aspects of plot, characterisation, events and settings, the relationships between them and their effects. Distinguishing between statements that are supported by evidence and those that are not, and identifying bias and misuse of evidence. Analysing a writer’s choice of vocabulary, form, grammatical and structural features, and evaluating their effectiveness and impact. Making critical comparisons, referring to the contexts, themes, characterisation, style and literary quality of texts, and drawing on knowledge and skills from wider reading.

Identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing. Drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence. Identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning. Discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader.

Key Stage 3 (KS3) – Writing

Year 7 Year 8 Year 9

Writing for a wide range of purposes and audiences, including well-structured formal expository and narrative essays, stories, scripts, poetry and other imaginative writing, and a range of other narrative and non-narrative texts, including arguments, and personal and formal letters Applying their growing knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and text structure to writing and selecting the appropriate form. Drawing on knowledge of literary and rhetorical devices from reading and listening to enhance the impact of their writing. Plan, draft, edit and proof-read through: considering how their writing reflects the audiences and purposes for which it was intended; amending the vocabulary, grammar and structure of their writing to improve its coherence and overall effectiveness; paying attention to accurate grammar, punctuation and spelling.

Adapting writing for a wide range of purposes and audiences: to describe, narrate, explain, instruct, give and respond to information, and argue. Selecting and organising ideas, facts and key points, and citing evidence, details and quotation effectively and pertinently for support and emphasis. Selecting, and using judiciously, vocabulary, grammar, form, and structural and organisational features, including rhetorical devices, to reflect audience, purpose and context, and using Standard English where appropriate. Reflecting on whether a draft achieves the intended impact. Restructuring writing and amending grammar and vocabulary to improve coherence, consistency, clarity and overall effectiveness. Paying attention to the accuracy and effectiveness of grammar, punctuation and spelling.

Identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own. In writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed. Selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning. In narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action. Using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs. Assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing. Proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning.